Living in private house, a man has a choice from various available water supplies. But freedom of choice also puts greater responsibility on the owner of the house about water quality because poor quality of water may cause such diseases as cholera, typhoid, dysentery, poliomyelitis and hepatitis A.
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What water supply options are available for private owners?
Urban water supply system
In the most places of Latvia, except Riga, the drinking water for urban water supply system is taken from underground sources. In Riga the drinking water is taken from underground sources as well as from the river Daugava. All the water that goes to the end user, must comply with drinking water standards stated in Regulations No. 235 of Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Latvia. However, the biggest problem in Riga and many other cities of Latvia is old, outdated water supply systems, whose pipes degrading over time create water pollution (mainly, iron sediment).
Water from the spokes
Comparing the spoke's and water purification equipment's costs to other types of water extraction, it is the cheapest way to get clean water. The spoke obtains water from a groundwater aquifer. Spokes cannot be used throughout the entire territory of Latvia. The top soil in most of the territory of Latvia is loamy layers where water intake with the spoke is not possible. Productivity of the spokes depends on the diameter and the shape of the sand grains in layer, on saturation of clay and slime in it, on the surface of water reception in the spoke. Despite the potential yield of spice, the real yield is affected by the vertical distance from the pump to the water level in the spoke which typically is equal to the groundwater level. The less will be the distance, the greater will be the return of the water.
||Wrong is the notion that water extraction from the drilling gets better water quality and quantity than what is possible from the spoke! Often the quality difference is only in the form of impurities in the water, which determines the treatment options and equipment costs. But quantity can be achieved by the spoke's filter column length, diameter or by several spokes connected together.|
Water from the drilling
The most expensive water extraction method. Correctly using the drilling is also very durable. Depth of the drilling may vary from 10 m up to several hundreds meters. In many places in the territory of Latvia it is the only possible water extraction method. Drilling can be conducted throughout the territory of Latvia, but depths may vary widely. Typically, there are several potential water intake horizons with different water quality and quantity. Water from the drilling has lesser risks of the bacteriological pollution. However, the drillings often contain such impurities as iron (mostly), lime, sulfate. As well as hydrogen sulphide odor that rises from the dolomite layers. To bore the drilling only verified firms and masters must be chosen who are capable and interested in taking responsibility for the quality of the hole!
One of the cheapest forms of water extraction. More prevalent in rural areas where there are loamy soils with little water returns and the water bearing layers with increased water returns. Well works as a water storage tank which fulfills in a long period of time. The amount of water in the well is restricted by the free flow of water and volume of well. In the wells the average inflow is a few m3 per day. Wells usually feeds from precipitation water that was gradually absorbed into the ground in large territory and then through sand, gravel, stone aquifers of the slightest resistance running toward the nearest ditch, river, lake or sea. Water quality can be from very good to very bad. Rain water is close to the distilled water, so if the ground does not contain soluble compunds and minerals, the water can come in well very clean. Though mostly such compounds as mineral and organic impurities are present in the wells. In active agricultural areas, there is a risk that the well can accumulate particles of fertilizers, pesticides, cattle breeding and industrial pollution. Sometimes there are frogs, insects and rodents drowning in the well, causing serious bacterial contamination. The wells has the advantage of longevity which can be unlimited if it is cleaned from time to time. Water can also be ladled simply with a bucket, and does not necessarily require electricity and pump.